Waves of Civil Resistance Throughout History

Sources:

The Global Nonviolent Action Database(this is a wonderful database I use extensively but could not provide live links for all examples; so you can cut-and-paste the links I provide after the brief descriptions or you can come back here and do your own search)

Recovering Nonviolent History – Civil Resistance in Liberation Struggles, by Maciej Bartkowski

A Force More Powerful – A Century of Nonviolent Conflict, by Peter Ackerman and Jack Duvall

Insurrectionary Civic Strikes in Latin America, 1931-61, by Patricia Parkman

Waging Nonviolent Struggle – 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential by Gene Sharp

Civil Resistance & Power Politics – The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Edited by Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Nash )

Why Civil Resistance Works – The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict, by Erica Chenoweth and Maria J Stephan

Unarmed Insurrections – People Power Movements in Nondemocracies, byKurt Schock

Nonviolent Social Movements – A Geographical Perspective, edited by Stephen Zunes, Lester Kurtz and Sarah Beth Ashner

Civil Resistance and Conflict Transformation – Transitions from Armed to Nonviolent Struggle, by Veronique Dudouet

Sharp’s Dictionary of Power and Struggle – Language of Civil Resistance in Conflicts, by Gene Sharp


Brief descriptions and sources for the Waves of Civil Resistance

Pre-20th Century

Greek comic play Lysistrata written by Aristophanes in 411 BC
Women use sex strike and a sit-in to end Peloponnesian Wars. (here is an ebook of Lysistrata https://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/a/aristophanes/lysistra/ )

Iroquois Nation, 1600s
Women refuse lovemaking and childbearing to stop wars. (Global Nonviolent Action Database  (http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/iroquois-women-gain-power-veto-wars-1600s )

Bishnoi region, India, 1730
Bishnoi tree-huggers sacrifice lives to save sacred trees. (Global Nonviolent Action Database   http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/bishnoi-villagers-sacrifice-lives-save-trees-1730 )

United States, 1763-75
Before Lexington & Concord, the struggle of the American colonies against Britain was used primarily nonviolent resistance. (Recovering Nonviolent History chapter 16)

United Kingdom, 1787-1807
British citizens campaign for the abolition of the slave trade. (Global Nonviolent Action Database http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/british-citizens-campaign-abolition-slave-trade-1787-1807 )

Egypt, 1805-1922
Civil resistance has had a very long history in Egypt. (Recovering Nonviolent History chapter 7)

Cuba, 1810s-1902
Cubans us nonviolent strategies for autonomy and independence. (Recovering Nonviolent History chapter 17)

Algeria, 1830s-1950s
Nonviolent resistance against French colonialism. (Recovering Nonviolent History chapter 6)

Hungary, 1850s-1860s
Nonviolent resistance against Austrian invasion. (Recovering Nonviolent History chapter 13)

Poland, 1860s-1900s
Civil resistance plays an important role in both forging and protecting Poland.
(Recovering Nonviolent History chapter 14)

Aotearoa (New Zealand), 1879-81
Maori resistance ends British land seizures. (Global Nonviolent Action Database  http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/maori-resistance-british-land-seizure-parihaka-new-zealand-1879-81 )

Ghana, 1890s-1950
Nonviolent resistance in the independence movement (Recovering Nonviolent History chapter 3)

Iran, 1890-1906
Nonviolent revolts against British colonial rule. (Recovering Nonviolent History chapter 8)

Finland, 1898-1905
Finns resist Russification, end conscription and regain elections (Global Nonviolent Action Database  http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/finns-resist-russification-end-conscription-regain-elections-1898-1905  )

20th Century

1900s

Zambia, 1900s-1960s
Nonviolent strategies against colonialism (Recovering Nonviolent History chapter 4)

Russia, 1905
The people campaign for democracy and economic justice. ( from  A Force More Powerful chapter 1)

Sweden, 1905
Swedish workers protest, threaten general strike and mutiny to prevent war against Norway (Global Nonviolent Action Database  http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/swedish-workers-protest-threaten-general-strike-and-mutiny-prevent-war-against-norway-1905 )

Norway, 1905
Norwegian workers, women campaign for independence from Sweden (Global Nonviolent Action Database  http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/norwegian-workers-women-campaign-independence-sweden-1905 )

Argentina, 1909
Successful strike for human rights (Global Nonviolent Action Database  http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/argentine-workers-campaign-human-rights-semana-roja-1909 )

USA, 1909
Women Triangle Shirtwaist Factory workers strike wins better wages and hours in New York (Global Nonviolent Action Database  http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/triangle-shirtwaist-factory-women-strike-win-better-wages-and-hours-new-york-1909 )

1910s

Monaco, 1910
Popular resistance ends absolute monarchy (Global Nonviolent Action Database )

West Papua, 1910s-2012
Civil resistance, framing and identity in the struggle for independence from Indonesia (Recovering Nonviolent History chapter 12)

Burma, 1910s-1940
Civil resistance and national identity play major roles in their anti-colonial struggle (Recovering Nonviolent History chapter 10)

Uruguay, 1911
A general strike wins rights for streetcar workers ( Global Nonviolent Action Database   http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/uruguayan-general-strike-streetcar-laborers-rights-1911 )

USA, 1912
Lawrence, MA, successful factory worker’s strike for “bread and roses” ( Global Nonviolent Action Database  http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/lawrence-ma-factory-workers-strike-bread-and-roses-us-1912 )

Belgium, 1913
A general labor strike wins universal suffrage rights in Belgium. ( Global Nonviolent Action Database http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/belgian-socialists-general-strike-universal-suffrage-1913 )

Champaran, India, 1917
Peasant resistance wins agrarian reforms (lead by Gandhi)  ( Global Nonviolent Action Database http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/indian-peasants-champaran-campaign-rights-1917 )

1920s

Mozambique, 1920s-70s
Liberation myths and resistance strategies help build this civil resistance movement.  (Recovering Nonviolent History, chapter 5 )

Palestine, 1920s-2012
Nonviolent resistance in the struggle for Statehood (Recovering Nonviolent History, Chapter 9  )

Germany, 1923
Civil resistance halts French invasion of Ruhrkampf  ( A Force More Powerful, Chapter 4)

1930s

Pakistan, 1933-37
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Khan (known as the Frontier Gandhi), raises a nonviolent army of 100,000 Pathan warriors from the Northwest Province to fight for Indian independence (learn more about this very important hero of mine from the website of the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict   http://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/index.php/movements-and-campaigns/movements-and-campaigns-summaries?sobi2Task=sobi2Details&sobi2Id=15  )

India, 1930-31
The Salt Satyagraha campaign during India’s struggle for independence  ( Global Nonviolent Action Database http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/indians-campaign-independence-salt-satyagraha-1930-1931 )

Chile, 1931
General strike forces resignation of President Ibanez. (PDF: Insurrectionary Civic Strikes in Latin America, 1931-61)

Cuba 1933
General strike forces resignation of dictator Machado. (PDF: Insurrectionary Civic Strikes in Latin America, 1931-61)

Denmark, 1939-45
Danes use civil resistance to resist Nazi occupation and save over 8,000 Jews ( A Force More Powerful , Chapter 5 )

1940s

France, 1940-44
Town of Le Chambon, led by Pastor Andre Trocme, protect over 5,000 Jews from Nazis ( a wonderful documentary Weapons of the Spirit http://www.chambon.org/weapons_en.htm )

Germany 1942-43
Five university students and their professor form the White Rose group whose clandestine campaign against the Third Reich, declared “We will not be silent. We are your bad conscience,” and exhorted their fellow Germans to fight for their freedom and revealed the persecution of the Jews to them.  (Wikipedia has background info and links to books and a movie about the White Rose http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophie_Scholl )

Norway, 1942
Norwegian teachers refuse to cooperate with Quisling’s collaboration with the Nazis. ( Gene Sharp interviewed participants and wrote this article in the Peace News, “Tyranny Could Not Quell Them – How Norway’s Teachers Defeated Quisling During the Nazi Occupation and What It Means For Unarmed Defense Today” http://www.aeinstein.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Tyranny-Could-Not-Quell-Them.pdf  and a 10 minute lecture on this struggle on YouTube https://youtu.be/kZcjvM59B6k?list=PLlIKOG14w16TFIj-4cv9dZ_cPy57htdNM )

Germany, 1943
German women married to Jewish men protest the arrest of their husbands at Gestapo headquarters in Rosenstrasse, Berlin and win the release of their husbands. (a very detailed book by Nathan Stolzfus, Resistance of the Heart: Intermarriage and the Rosenstrasse Protest in Nazi Germany,  was written about this protest http://www.amazon.com/Resistance-Heart-Intermarriage-Rosenstrasse-Protest/dp/0813529093 )

El Salvador, 1944
Civil resistance removes a military dictator Martinez.  ( A Force More Powerful,  chapter 6)

Guatemala, 1944
Civil resistance removes anther military dictator Ubico. ( Relentless Persistence – Nonviolent Action in Latin America, edited by Phillip McManus and Gerald Schlabach and/or Waging Nonviolent Struggle – 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential, Chapter 11)

Haiti, 1946-57
Strikes help oust a number of dictators.  (PDF: Insurrectionary Civic Strikes in Latin America, 1931-61)

Bangladesh, 1948-71
Civil resistance, focused on recognizing Bangladesh as their official language, plays a major role in winning their independence. (Recovering Nonviolent History, Chapter 11)

1950s

Panama, 1951
National strike ends the Arias dictatorship. (PDF: Insurrectionary Civic Strikes in Latin America, 1931-61)

United States, 1955-56
Bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama ends segregation on busses and launches a new phase of civil resistance in the US civil rights movement. (Global Nonviolent Action Database  http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/african-americans-boycott-buses-integration-montgomery-alabama-us-1955-1956 )

Colombia, 1957
A series of strikes and protests bring about the ouster of dictator Rojas Panilla. (PDF: Insurrectionary Civic Strikes in Latin America, 1931-61)

United States, 1958-63
Students lead movement to integrate lunch counters with sit-ins across the US South. (Here’s a great segment from the A Force More Powerful documentary which focuses on the Nashville lunch-counter sit-ins   http://youtu.be/n37gvkmLv2Q )

1960s

Dominican Republic 1961-62
A series of strikes and protests help bring about the resignation of President Balaguer. (PDF: Insurrectionary Civic Strikes in Latin America, 1931-61 )

United States, 1961
Freedom Riders win the integration of the interstate travel facilities throughout the southern US. (you can watch a great PBS documentary on the Freedom Riders here  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/freedomriders/watch)

France, 1961
Widespread noncooperation prevents a military coup against President De Gaulle. ( Waging Nonviolent Struggle – 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential, Chapter 13 )

United States, 1962-90
Disability Rights Movement wins major victories through the use of very creative civil resistance campaigns. (A great PBS documentary was made on this movement called Lives Worth Living. )

United States, 1965-70
United Farmer Workers
strike and grape boycott wins farmworker rights in California. ( Waging Nonviolent Struggle – 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential, Chapter 14)

1970s

New Zealand, 1970-94
Anti-Apartheid protests against South African Springbok rugby tour   (Global Nonviolent Action Database http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/new-zealanders-protest-against-springbok-rugby-tour-1981  )

Namibia, 1971-72
Successful labor strike against ruling South African Government wins important rights for African workers. (Waging Nonviolent Struggle – 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential , Chapter 16  )

Portugal, 1974-75
Civil resistance helps usher in democracy after 48 years of authoritarian rule. ( Civil Resistance & Power Politics – The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, chapter 9)

Argentina, 1977-83
Mother of the Plaza de Mayo bravely raised the issue of their family members who were disappeared by the military junta; their persistence and bravery was a key factor that brought about an end to the dictatorship. ( Relentless Persistence – Nonviolent Action in Latin America, edited by Phillip McManus and Gerald Schlabach (out of print)  and/or  Waging Nonviolent Struggle – 21st Century Practice and 21st Century Potential, Chapter 17 )

Iran, 1977-79
Mass protests bring down dictator Shah Pahlavi. ( Why Civil Resistance Works – The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict, Chapter 4 )

Poland, 1978-89
The Solidarity union movement brings down the communist government. ( A Force More Powerful, Chapter 3 )

1980s

The Philippines, 1983-86
People Power brings down the Marcos dictatorship. ( Why Civil Resistance Works – The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict, Chapter 6)

South Africa, 1983-94
Renewed civil resistance from students and then the townships bring about a negotiated end to Apartheid. ( Civil Resistance & Power Politics – The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present   chapter 13)

Chilé, 1983-88
Mass mobilization and resistance bring about end to Pinochet dictatorship.  ( Civil Resistance & Power Politics – The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present chapter 12)

Nepal, 1985-90
Civil resistance campaign brings about a transition to democracy. (Unarmed Insurrections – People Power Movements in Nondemocracies, chapter 5)

Latvia, 1986-91
Nonviolent protest, noncooperation and defiance wins Latvian independence after more than 40 years of Soviet occupation. ( Waging Nonviolent Struggle – 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential, Chapter 24 )

Estonia, 1987-91
The Singing Revolution. Hundreds of thousands of Estonians gathered publicly to sing forbidden patriotic songs and share protest speeches. The revolutionary songs of the Estonians anchored their struggle for freedom from the 40+ year Soviet occupation of their country.    (an overview of the struggle can be found at the website of the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict http://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/index.php/movements-and-campaigns/movements-and-campaigns-summaries?sobi2Task=sobi2Details&sobi2Id=26  )

Palestine, 1987-92
The first Palestinian Intifada (literally means “shaking off”) against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank, Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem. ( Why Civil Resistance Works – The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict, Chapter 5)

Burma, 1988-90
Burmese civil resistance brings down a 26-year-old dictator.  (Waging Nonviolent Struggle – 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential , Chapter 21 )

China, 1989
Student demonstrations lead to mass democratic uprising, which was then crushed by the government. (Waging Nonviolent Struggle – 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential , Chapter 22)

Czechoslovakia, 1989
Mass protests, called the “Velvet Revolution,” oust the communists from power in just 24 days. (Waging Nonviolent Struggle – 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential by Gene Sharp, Chapter 23 )

East Germany, 1989
The ‘fall of the wall’ was the end result of this mass civil resistance movement.  (Civil Resistance & Power Politics – The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present   chapter 16 )

1990s

Kosovo, 1990s
Civil resistance is used to defend against Serbian invasion. (Recovering Nonviolent History, Chapter 15 )

Nigeria, 1990-95
The Ogoni wage a civil resistance campaign for human rights against multi-national corporations and the military regime. (Nonviolent Social Movements – A Geographical Perspective, Chapter 10)

Lithuania, 1990-91
Massive civil resistance and noncooperation enforce the declaration of independence from Moscow and its Communist control structures. (PDF monograph of their struggle titled Nonviolent Resistance in Lithuania is available through he Albert Einstein Institution’s website at http://www.aeinstein.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/NonviolentResistanceInLithuania.pdf )

Mali, 1991
Student-led civil resistance movement brings about an end to the dictatorial regime of General Traore. ( the website of the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict http://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/index.php/movements-and-campaigns/movements-and-campaigns-summaries?sobi2Task=sobi2Details&sobi2Id=10  )

Thailand, 1991-92
Civil resistance movement ends a military dictatorship. (Unarmed Insurrections – People Power Movements in Nondemocracies, chapter 5 )

Soviet Union, 1991
Civil resistance prevents a hard-line coup. ( Waging Nonviolent Struggle – 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential, Chapter 25)

Serbia, 1991-2000
Creative civil resistance movement lead by Otpur (Serbian for “resistance”) “laugh their way to victory” over dictator Slobodan Milosevic. (documentary “Bringing Down a Dictator” available through YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UBvzsDUh8eY  and a book by an Otpur leader Blueprint for Revolution – how to use rice pudding, lego men, and other nonviolent techniques to galvanize, communities, overthrow dictators, or simply change the world  http://www.blueprintforrevolution.com/about/ )

Mexico, 1994-2014
Zapatistas wage civil resistance campaign for sovereignty in Chiapas region. (Civil Resistance and Conflict Transformation – Transitions from Armed to Nonviolent Struggle, chapter 6, you can read the chapter here  https://books.google.com/books?id=7kKDBAAAQBAJ&pg=PT127&lpg=PT127&dq=From+armed+struggle+to+interact+with+civil+society,+Chiapas%27+Zapatista&source=bl&ots=2HzKZ3E0SJ&sig=ocYNmKmlgn0Bs668IRQQUjNnPtg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=SbUEVYWRN4vsoAT0mIKgDw&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=From%20armed%20struggle%20to%20interact%20with%20civil%20society%2C%20Chiapas’%20Zapatista&f=false)

21st Century

Bolivia, 2000
Popular uprising prevents privatization of water rights in Chochabamba, Bolivia. (watch the segment of the documentary “Water Wars” which focuses on the struggle in Cochabamba on YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hn9wujK0ho4 )

Georgia, 2003
This “revolution without revolution” brought an end to the Shevardnadze presidency by winning over the military. ( Civil Resistance & Power Politics – The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present   chapter 19 )

Ukraine, 2004
The “Orange Revolution” prevents the theft of Yushchenko electoral victory and an end to Soviet domination. (watch the documentary Orange Revolution on YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iOYzlqJQu74 )

Burma, 2007
The next massive wave of civl resistance lead by Buddhist monks still unsuccessful in securing end to military dictatorship.  (Civil Resistance & Power Politics – The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present,   chapter 21)

Tunisia, 2010-11
After self-immolation of Mohammed Bouazizi, civil resistance spread across the country, forcing the resignation of President Ben Ali, who had been in power for 23 years, launching the Arab Spring. (Sharp’s Dictionary of Power and Struggle – Language of Civil Resistance in Conflicts, chapter 4)

Egypt, 2011
Following the fall of Ben Ali in Tunisia, massive protests throughout Egypt end the 29-year rule of Hosni Mubarak. (Global Nonviolent Action Database  http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/egyptians-bring-down-dictatorship-hosni-mubarak-2011  )

United States, 2011
The Occupy Wall Street movement raised the issue of income inequality, focusing on the disparity between the richest 1% who own over 34% of the wealth in the US and the remaining 99%, and spread to over 100 cities before being crushed by the government. ( a collaborative documentary is now available http://www.99percentfilm.com/ )

Canada, 2014-present
Idle No More
 launched one of the largest Indigenous mass movements in Canadian history that is asserting Indigenous rights to sovereignty and reinstitute traditional laws and Nation to Nation treaties to protect the lands and waters from corporate destruction.  (learn more at the Idle No More website  http://www.idlenomore.ca/story  )


Civil Resistance Movements
That I Organized For/Participated In

Source:
Political Protest & Cultural Revolution – Nonviolent Direct Action in the 1970s and 1980s by Barbara Epstein. 

Waging Peace – Global Adventures of a Lifelong Activist, by David Hartsough with Joyce Hollyday (David is one of my living heroes; he was also the trainer who introduced me to strategy games in the early 80s)


The Occupation of Vandenberg Air Force Base, June 1983, in an attempt to prevent the first test launch of the MX missile. (Political Protest & Cultural Revolution, chapter 4)

The Blockade of Lawrence Livermore Labs, June 1983, as part of the Livermore Action Group campaign to shut down the labs from 1981-84. (Political Protest & Cultural Revolution, chapter 4)

The Occupation of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, as part of the Abalone Alliance campaign to prevent the start of Diablo Canyon from 1976-84. ( Political Protest & Cultural Revolution, chapter 3 and http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/abalone-alliance-campaigns-against-diablo-canyon-nuclear-plant-california-1976-1984)

The Chilé Basta movement in the mid-80s, supporting the Chilean struggle to end the rule of the Pinochet dictatorship (installed by the CIA).

The Pledge of Resistance Against US Military Intervention in Central America 1984-90http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/peace-activists-pledge-resistance-against-us-military-intervention-central-america-1984-1990

Big Mountain Support Group actions at BIA offices in Northern California and Arizona, to protest the forced removal of a community of over 10,000 traditional Dineh (Navajo) people in northeastern Arizona.

Big Mountain Genocide Demands campaign – 1986-92, brought demand to US Attorneys offices that those responsible for the relocation at Big Mountain be prosecuted for the crime of genocide, because removing traditional people from their land was genocide (subjecting a group to conditions of life intended to bring about their destruction, in whole or in part) . And we had the documentation to show it was.

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